History of the Arab Revolt The first phase


Sharif Hussein bin Ali, was initiated by the Arab Revolt. Gain independence from the Ottomans and the stretches of Aden in Yemen from Aleppo in Syria to form a single Arab state was the main objective of the rebellion. I think as far as the Ottoman Empire early in 1821 to the rise of nationalism. Arab nationalism was Mushriq the ground, especially in the Arab lands east of Egypt, Sham. Arab nationalists were politically biased sahaniyai before the First World War. The demands of the Arabs was a reformist. Increased autonomy and the use of common teaching Arabic and peacetime military participation was limited to changing the rules esabei.

Young Turk Revolution began on July 3rd, 1908 and was quickly spread throughout the empire. As a result, Sultan Abdul Hamid II to restore the 1876 constitution and the reconvening of parliament said. This time period is called the Constitution. In the elections held in 1908 by the Young Turks of the Committee of Union and Progress party rivals Prince sabahaddinera was able to overcome. CUP they were more liberal in outlook. They are also friendly to the British, and was close to the sultan. 14 of the new Turkish parliament, 60 Arab, Albanian 5 people, 3 John Greek, Armenian 1 John, 5 Jews, 4 Bulgarians, Serbs, and 1 in 3 is composed of bhlaca. CUP centralization and modernization of the Ottoman Parliament insisted more.
[Si Arab members of parliament supported the 1909 counter-coup. The purpose of the coup and dismantle the constitution and Abdul Hamid II to ascend to power. Sultan deposed the secular principles of the Caliphate by the Young Turks attempted to gain. But after 31 March, the situation is to go into exile in Salonica. He was replaced by his brother Mehmed V.

] In 1913, politicians and intellectuals from the Arab Mashriq met in Paris at the first Arab Congress. They are a set of demands for greater autonomy within the Ottoman Empire. Badhyatamulakabhabe to join the army, so the Arabs claimed that during the war can not be sent to other regions. 

About 5,000 soldiers are expected to take part in the Arab Revolt However, only Egyptian forces in the Sinai and Palestine campaign, and Edmund Allenby sanslistaderakei is calculated. Faisal and Lawrence was not taken into consideration in connection with the irregular forces. In some cases, this number would grow significantly, especially during the final assault on Syria. Many took part in the Arab Revolt sporadically. Progress could be seen in the operations or add to their home region, they were allowed to enter.
There was only a few hundred soldiers of Aqaba during the initial Arab force. More than a thousand people from the local tribes’ Aqaba joined for the final assault. Details are available in a variety of sainyasankhyarao Hussein. But by 1918 their number (30000 thirty thousand) was like. The Hashemite clan irregular army consisted of two parts of the guerrilla attacks against the Ottoman soldiers who were prisoners of war from the Arab and Ottoman forces sangrhitadera sariphi regular manner of fighting. Hussein’s forces early in the war, mainly nomadic Bedouin tribes and the other consisted of marucari. They were tied up and the whole situation with him is weak mitrataya tribal loyalty was more important to them. Do not pay in advance the gold they did not want to take part in the fight. 

French Gold Fra 125 million by the end of 1916 and September of 1918, the cost of the revolt, the British pound was 220000 per month. Faisal was under the impression that the Ottoman army and the Arabs to revolt can bring your own behalf. But most of the Ottoman government sent Arab troops to the war in the first row. As a result, at that time, a handful of soldiers defectors joined with the Arabs. While Hashemite forces were poorly equipped. But Britain and France from rifles and machine guns in supply of weapons.  

In 1917, the Ottoman Hejaz had an army of about 20000 people. Since the outbreak of the revolt in June 1916 during the Ottoman Fourth Army’s VII Corps’ 58th Infantry Division under Lieutenant Colonel Ali Pasha fortune-General Mehmed Cemal Pasha, 1st provincial Hejaz was to join forces. This forces the Hejaz railway, and to ensure the protection of the Hejaz under General Fakhruddin Pasha. In 1917, due to the continuing attacks on the Hejaz railroad II is another force. Forces loyal to the Ottoman caliphs were soldiers. They fought against the Allies. Since the beginning of modern German weapons against the Ottomans Hashemite benefits received. In addition, the Ottomans and the Ottoman soldiers had to help themselves to the German air force. Ibn Rashid, Hail, King of the Kingdom of the help they received. Bin Rashid tribe, and the Hashemite Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the region was ruled by the two parties involved in the conflict. US supply lines to the end of the Ottoman weakness. That is why they sometimes have to fight a defensive positional weakness. Ottomans action against the Hashemite forces more often faltered due to supply problems than to the actions of the enemy.   

 The main contribution of the Arab revolt in the war tens of thousands of Ottoman soldiers to keep busy. They are not used to attack the Suez Canal. This was considered a British mutiny to start. Both are considered unequal battle. Military leaders and historians have studied this issue over and over. As part of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman-German alliance in the Middle East took part in the First World War. Many Arab nationalist figures in Damascus and Beirut were arrested and tortured. The flag was designed by Sir Mark Sykes resistance. It was built as an incentive for the establishment of the rebellion arabatba.

Role rebellion
On June 8, 1916, the guardian of the holy city of Mecca, Hussein bin Ali, on behalf of the United Kingdom and France joined. However, the actual date is not known. Ottoman army to help young Arab officer Muhammed Sharif al-Farooqi, they have benefited a lot. Under Hussein, as 50 000 people were armed. But the number was only 10,000 less than rifles. After the war, the Ottoman government that deprived him of the news, he exchanged letters with the British High Commissioner Henry myakamohanera. Allies support the Arab empire stretching from Egypt to Persia, is assured to be given. Aden and off the coast of Kuwait, Syria has taken in some areas. At that time, the Ottomans Hussein on paper, but the parties established relations with the Allies.

 Sharif Ali Haidar Zaid Sharif of Mecca, for the post of head of the family with the Ottoman government, and he would soon be deposed atata are rumors that he has taken this decision. Hussein was deposed in Damascus as the Arab nationalist fear of public executions has increased. June 5, 1916, Hussein’s two sons, the Emir of Madina Ali bin Hussein and Faisal began the revolt by attacking the Ottoman garrison. Fakhri Pasha led the Turkish army, but they were defeated. June 10, 1916 sei Hussein ordered his supporters to attack Mecca of the Ottoman garrison in the revolt began. Hussein’s ornate Ottoman army in the Battle of Mecca a month was like a bloody fight. Egyptian troops sent by the British to the Hashemite forces in Mecca were joined and provided much needed artillery. Then came July 9 Arabian their possession. Ottomans random bombardment of Mecca, the holy city of Mecca has abused cause harm if they allow such propaganda. June 10, another of Hussein’s sons, the Emir Abdullah attacked at Ta’if. Twenty September with the support of the Egyptian army golandajadera Abdullah took at Ta’if. With the Egyptian artillery support, Abdullah took Ta’if on September 22, 1916 

Ottomans drove the British and the French navy in the Red Sea. June 10, 3500, British warships and assistance siplenera Arabs attacked the port of Jeddah. British aircraft carriers HMS Ben-my cherry Hashemite role in helping to heaven. Ottomans surrendered on June 16. By the end of September 1916 with the support of the Arabs of the British Navy and the coastal cities of Yanbu and kunaphida Rabegh usamaniyake prisoners were captured and 6000. As a result, the British were able to send 700 Ottoman Arab POWs revolt. They agreed to join the rebellion led by Nuri al-Said. Several Muslim soldiers from the French in North Africa joined the rebellion. Fifteen thousand well-armed Ottoman troops remained in the Hejaz. But the expulsion of the Arabs is a direct attack on Medina in October.
1916, Thomas Friedman
1917 Lawrence rabeghe north of Jeddah.

In June 1916, the British sent officials to assist the revolt in the Hejaz. Colonel Cyril Wilson, Colonel Pierce Sr. Joyce, and most notably Lt. Col. Stewart Francis Newcomb. The French Colonel Edward Bremen sent a French military mission. France receives more benefits than some Muslim officers assigned to the case. The officers were Captain Ali raho aulda, Claude Prost and Laurent depui the latter two converted to Islam in Arabia. French Army Captain Rosario pisani though not a Muslim played an important role in the revolt as an engineering and artillery officer.

In October 1916, the British government in Egypt a young officer, Captain TE Lawrence, sent to work with the Hashemite forces in the Hejaz. British historian David Murphy wrote that Lawrence was one of the British and French officers, but also historical writings, it seems that Lawrence of Arabia was represented by the Allied cause.

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