Johannes Kepler


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Johannes Kepler (German: Johannes Kepler) (December 7, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. A key figure in the scientific revolution in the 17th century, is famous because of Kepler’s planetary gatisutrera. Astronomers later in his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy nitigulikei written in the books as his sources were named. Before Kepler planet would be determined by following the course of the sphere of the heavens. Kepler astronomers realized that the planets follow elliptical orbits. Isaac Newton’s theory of universal gravitation, Kepler’s laws of planetary of the foundations.

During his career, Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz, Austria, where he became an associate of Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg. Then he became an assistant to astronomer Tycho Brahe, and eventually Emperor Rudolf II and his two successors Matthias and Ferdinand II worked as a mathematician. He also taught mathematics in Linz, Austria, and he worked as an adviser to General Wallenstein. He also did fundamental work in the field of optics, an improved version of the refracting telescope Keplerian telescope and comments about the work of his contemporary Galileo Galilei’s telescope.

Kepler was alive when he was no distinction between astronomy and astrology, but there was a marked difference in astronomical physics. At that time, physics is a branch of natural philosophy and astronomy in a subset of mathematics within the liberal arts. He named his new astronomy “B-physics” (celestial physics)  which can be considered a special expedition to the world of Aristotle’s metaphysics,  and Aristotle’s “On the hyabhenasa” book as Uttarakhand.  astronomy universal he is considered a branch of mathematical physics and physical cosmology, ancient customs gave a new perspective.

 

The first part of life

On 7 December 1571 Johannes Kepler called Vile dea stata Free Imperial City was born. HRE in the cities, but the emperor was ruled by a prince who was called the Free Imperial City. Currently, the city is included in Stuttgart, Germany. Kepler sebalda his grandfather was Lord Mayor of the town, but Kepler was born, her two brothers and one sister and their family fortune. His father, Heinrich Kepler, was a mercenary life is full of economic uncertainty, however, when he was 5 years old when her family left. Eighty Years’ War took place in the Netherlands, he is believed to have died. His mother was a hosteller daughter Katharina Guldenmann, he worked with herbal medicine and was known as bhisaka. It was later tried for witchcraft. Kepler was born before the 38th week of pregnancy, the child because she was very weak and suffering from various diseases. Wayfaring man in his grandfather’s inn with his phenomenal mathematical skills impressed.

He was introduced to astronomy at an early age, and this branch of knowledge throughout his life remained his weakness. The Great Comet of 1577, at the age of 6, he sees his mother to see him writing that the comet was on a high place.  In 1580 at the age of 9, he observed another astronomical event, a lunar eclipse this year. According to the text called out to them, was taken to see the moon and the moon appeared red.  However, childhood smallpox sickness weak vision and crippled hands. His ability in the observational astronomy was quite reduced.

Kepler first grammar school, Latin school, and maulabrone the Evangelical Seminary (Roman Catholic priests training college) at the University of Reading in tyubinenera tyubinara stiphta admitted. Under the philosophy he phitusa Müller and theology under iyakaba Heerbrand. Michael, who later taught Heerbrand mayestalinakeo tyubinenera became vice-chancellor and patron of Kepler.  Kepler here excellent mathematician and earned a reputation as a skillful astrologer, horoscopes, even without the names of classmates won. Michael Maestlin guidance of the Ptolemaic system of planetary motion, he studied both the idea and the concept of koperanikusera. He was the Copernican. Heliocentric theory was supported by a debate for students of both a theoretical and theological perspective was presented, said the main motive of the universe and the sun pranasancalaka.  Despite his desire to become a minister in the Protestant school in Graz, Austria, at the end of his studies (which are the University of Graz) was appointed professor of mathematics and astronomy. He accepted the position in 1594 at the age of 3 had.

Mysterium kasamographikuma

Kepler’s first astronomy book Mysterium kasamographikuma (holy mysteries of the universe) Copernican system was the first published evidence. According to Kepler’s claim on 19 January 1595 in Graz, demonstrating the periodic conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter in the zodiac in the classroom while teaching is playing a heavenly thoughts; As he realized that regular polygons inscribed and circumscribed circle with a polygon is always bound to a certain proportion, perhaps as geometrical basis of the universe. And many kinds of tests, but ended up having to add additional planets polygons did not have a meeting to explain the direction in which the known astronomical observations. So began working with three-dimensional polyhedron. It was discovered that the five Platonic solids and parilikhita can be inscribed in the sphere. The objects placed inside one another, each was bound by an inscribed and a circumscribed circle. One object inscribed with the transition to the next item in the form of a sphere. Thus, for a total of five objects found six sphere. Until then, the six known planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) Kepler space in this sphere was six. Octahedron, binsatalaka, dodecahedron, tetrahedron and ghanaka arranged in the correct order to see five of these objects, so that it can be placed at a distance of a planetary golakaguloke,

Represents the relative sizes of the orbits. Of course, he found that the value of that distance by astronomical observations he had to use. Kepler also its orbital period of each planet’s sphere relating accidentally discovers a formula: to go from inner to outer parasparasanlagna increase in orbital period of the planet’s orbital radius is twice the difference between the two. Later, however, to determine the exact value considering the constraints of the formula was abandoned.

The title of the book implies the universe, Kepler thought he had revealed God’s geometrical plan. There was so much interest in him because of the Copernican system-essentially theological convictions, he was determined to find a relation of the physical world with the spiritual world. He thought the universe itself is a picture of God, the father of the sun, the stellar sphere to the Son, and the Holy Spirit in the middle space. Geocentric theory of the Bible, but he seemed to support the Bible’s relationship with the heliocentric theory by analyzing the first manuscript of Mysterium wrote a separate chapter,

With the help of his mentor Michael Maestlin support and permission to publish the manuscript he received from the University of tyubinena, with the exception of the condition of the Bible hairs bislesanasamrddha section of the Copernican system instead of a straightforward explanation of his own to write a general introduction to new ideas. The book was published in 1596, in 1597 he received his copies and began sending them to prominent astronomers worldwide. Kepler acclamation but not too much as a highly astronomer helps. Her self-sacrifice was well-established in Graz and its sponsors are pleased bhaugalikabhabei increase its patronage.

Kepler introduces several changes to work through the next Platonic solid ever built on the basis of cosmology never relinquished. Many of his later life was meant to astronomical model as well as more subtle and effective, especially in determining the eccentricity of planets in the inner and outer B-balls vow was more accurate diagnosis values. In 1621, he published an expanded second edition Mysterium. Nearly half as long as the first and the last 5 years through several corrections and footnotes achieved highlighted in this version.

The impact of the Mysterium, it was the first step in modernizing the theory of Copernicus. De revolutionibus orbium coelestium book that Copernicus heliocentric tried to create a model that no doubt, but the problem is that he has to take refuge in talemiya approach, to explain the planets’ orbital speed and eccentric circles anubrtta idea was to highlight. In addition Copernicus himself the center of the sun’s orbit, rather than as a point of reference was in the center of the Earth’s orbit. Found as the cause of his own writing, “as diverging too much from Ptolemy, and in order not to confuse the reader.” Therefore, the development of modern astronomy, but the theory is wrong Mysterium kasamographikumera its huge role. Because the Copernican theory of the Ptolemaic sesacihna cleaned him away.

Married Barbara Müller

In 1595, Kepler was introduced to Barbara Müller. Müller 3-year-old widow when young, he had a daughter (named Gemma van Dvijneveldt). Kepler was launched immediately after the identities and Müller love. Müller was a huge inheritance her husband, as well as the daughter of a wealthy mill owner, the name of the iyobsta. Kepler did not want to get married to the girl’s father. Because of the highly respected and family status, but Kepler did not have enough money. When he was working on Mysterium, but iyobsta a kind, to look after the publication of the details of the marriage somehow go away almost bhenei. But church officials cooperate in this regard. Müller church officials urged families to fulfill their promise. Finally, on 7 April 1597 by Johannes and Barbara were married. [18] Kepler first years of marriage, the couple’s two children were Heinrich and Susanna, although positive, their children were killed. In 1602 their daughter Susanna, in 1604 and in 1607, another boy, the son of Friedrich Ludwig was born.

Other research

After the Graz school inspectors, Kepler published Mysterium his previous actions began an ambitious program to expand further. He plans to release four new books: a steady state universe, especially with the sun and the stars, the planets and their movements on a geographical and physical nature of the planets (especially earth) on the formation, and another on the effects of the heavens on earth, atmospheric optics , meteorology and astrology were included.

The astronomers also sent a copy of their comments to the gathering about his Mysterium was of particular interest, the imperial mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II, the king and the Ursus raimarusa a bitter rival of Tycho Brahe. Ursus letter did not answer directly, but simply a strong proof of the credibility of the concept of the Solar System model as opposed to the letter republished. Despite this negative message at a time when Kepler, Tycho began with the discussion, a harsh but legitimate critique of Kepler’s first published the so called Copernicus, Kepler used data from some mistakes. Move them through the exchange of letters he had discussed the major problems in astronomy, including the lunar events and religious acceptance of Copernicus’ theory. Tycho’s observatory, which is, however, relatively high quality of the data was not possible to act on behalf of Kepler.

Kepler necessarily chronology and order of the universe, music, mathematics and numerical relationship between the physical world and focus on their astrological consequences. He took over the world has a soul, the same assumption that the rotation of the planets around the sun and how its explained. However, the causal explanation of the events from astrology, astronomy, and measure the distance from the Earth’s climate, and build a new system in a variety of sources to create one of the world’s events. By 1599, however, he again his model lacks detailed data. Meanwhile, religious intolerance in Graz made his verse a little uncertain. In December of that year, Tycho invited Kepler to come to Prague. Tycho, however, received the invitation before the January 1, 1600, he traveled to Prague thinking that Tycho’s patronage could solve his philosophical and social problems.

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